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Luke Thompson
Luke Thompson

Frameworks For Mac


Frameworks serve the same purpose as static and dynamic shared libraries, that is, they provide a library of routines that can be called by an application to perform a specific task. For example, the Application Kit and Foundation frameworks provide the programmatic interfaces for the Cocoa classes and methods. Frameworks offer the following advantages over static-linked libraries and other types of dynamic shared libraries:




Frameworks For Mac



Target frameworks are specified in your project file, which you can edit by right-clicking on your project and choosing the Tools > Edit File command. When a single target framework is specified, use the TargetFramework element. The following console app project file demonstrates how to target .NET Core 3.0:


When you're editing a C# file in a project with multiple target frameworks, you can specify which target framework you want to use to guide your editor experience (for example, showing warnings if you use an API not supported by that framework). You can change the target framework by using the Target Framework selector in the top left corner of the editor window.


"The emergence of such frameworks in the wild suggests that threat actors are actively trying to develop alternative solutions to popular attack frameworks ... whose increasing popularity has led to rigorous detection efforts," Biasini says.


Both Alchimist and Manjusaka are stand-alone, single-file-based C2 frameworks with similar design philosophies but different implementations. Both come ready to use with no installation required, and both can patch and generate implants such as the Insekt RAT on the fly, Cisco Talos said.


We assume that you already have installed Qt as frameworks, which is the default when installing Qt, in the /path/to/Qt directory. For more information on how to build Qt without Frameworks, visit the Qt for macOS - Specific Issues documentation.


For the Qt frameworks, the first line (i.e. path/to/Qt/lib/QtGui.framework/Versions/4/QtGui (compatibility version 4.0.0, current version 4.0.1)) becomes the framework's identification name which is used by the dynamic linker (dyld).


But when you are deploying the application, your users may not have the Qt frameworks installed in the specified location. For that reason, you must either provide the frameworks in an agreed location, or store the frameworks in the bundle. Regardless of which solution you choose, you must make sure that the frameworks return the proper identification name for themselves, and that the application looks for these names. Luckily we can control this with the install_name_tool command-line tool.


The install_name_tool works in two modes, -id and -change. The -id mode is for libraries and frameworks, and allows us to specify a new identification name. We use the -change mode to change the paths in the application.


Let's test this out by copying the Qt frameworks into the Plug & Paint bundle. Looking at otool's output for the bundle, we can see that we must copy both the QtCore and QtGui frameworks into the bundle. We will assume that we are in the directory where we built the bundle.


First we create a Frameworks directory inside the bundle. This follows the macOS application convention. We then copy the frameworks into the new directory. As frameworks contain symbolic links, we use the -R option.


Then we run install_name_tool to set the identification names for the frameworks. The first argument after -id is the new name, and the second argument is the framework that we want to rename. The text @executable_path is a special dyld variable telling dyld to start looking where the executable is located. The new names specifies that these frameworks are located in the directory directly under the Frameworks directory.


Now, the dynamic linker knows where to look for QtCore and QtGui. We must ensure that the application also knows where to find the library, using install_name_tool's -change mode. This basically comes down to string replacement, to match the identification names that we set earlier to the frameworks.


Then we can see that the plugin links to the Qt frameworks it was built against. As we want the plugins to use the framework in the application bundle, we change them the same way as we did for the application. For example for the Basic Tools plugin:


Warning: While deploying plugins, we make changes to the source code and that resets the default identification names when the application is rebuilt. So you must repeat the process of making your application link to the correct Qt frameworks in the bundle using install_name_tool.


Now you should be able to move the application to another macOS machine and run it without Qt installed. Alternatively, you can move your frameworks that live outside of the bundle to another directory and see if the application still runs.


If you store the frameworks in another location outside the bundle, the technique of linking your application is similar; you must make sure that the application and the frameworks agree where to be looking for the Qt libraries as well as the plugins.


However, Manjusaka and Alchimist have virtually the same set of features. They both have been designed and implemented to operate as standalone GoLang-based executables that can be distributed with relative ease to operators. The frameworks inside carry the implants and the whole web user interface. The implant configuration is defined using the Web UI (Web User Interface), which in both cases is completely written in Simplified Chinese. Also, they both mention the uncommon protocol SNI in one case already supported (Alchimist), with plans to support it in the other (Manjusaka).


The main differences lie in the approaches taken to implement the Web UI and the way the frameworks implement the single-file feature. Manjusaka developers take advantage of the Gin web framework and use packr, an asset bundling framework, to embed and store the implants. Alchimist authors took a more basic approach, using only the basic GoLang features to implement the same features.


Our discovery of Alchimist is yet another indication that threat actors are rapidly adopting off-the-shelf C2 frameworks to carry out their operations. A similar ready-to-go C2 framework called "Manjusaka'' was recently disclosed by Talos. Alchimist also comprises a single-file based, ready-to-go C2 tool along with its remote access tool Insekt, implemented in GoLang and compiled to target Windows and Linux machines.


The functionality of Manjusaka and Alchimist's web interfaces exhibiting remote administration capabilities, performed through the RATs, signifies the plethora of functionalities packed into these C2 frameworks. A threat actor gaining privileged shell access on a victim's machine is like having a Swiss Army knife, enabling the execution of arbitrary commands or shellcodes in the victim's environment, resulting in significant effects on the target organization.


As noted in the previous chapter, frameworks in Mac OS X are commonwhen you step outside of the BSD portions of the operating system.You must use #import instead of #includewhen working with a framework. To include a framework header file inObjective-C code, use the following format:


The kernel extension framework provided by macOS, however, is changing. Starting with macOS 10.15, a new framework has been added to assist those who want to have visibility into file system, process, and network events in real time. These new frameworks are called the SystemExtension framework, the EndpointSecurity framework, and the NetworkExtension framework, respectively. These new frameworks will be the new base from which endpoint security products must build on top of starting in macOS 10.16.


Before going into the new frameworks, it is important to understand what is currently offered by the legacy kernel extension framework, including the information that can be retrieved for events and the capabilities provided for stopping malicious behavior.


Efficient, feature-rich frameworks and toolkits are helpful for building desktop applications. These tools can significantly reduce errors, optimize costs, and promote the productivity of your teams.


The desktop application development frameworks depend on the desktop operating system software. A few frameworks have compatibility with Windows, while others are compatible with macOS. The following section will provide detailed information on different desktop application development frameworks.


Building an application without a suitable framework makes the development process extensive and financially challenging. Therefore, developers need frameworks and toolkits for their application development projects to increase efficiency, reduce hurdles, and save time.


Briefly, frameworks are the Mac OS X equivalents of Mac OS 9's dynamicshared libraries, which means that they contain code that can be used by morethan one application simultaneously. The basic idea is to eliminate the need torepeat code that will be used by multiple applications.


There is only one slight difference between these two kinds of libraries that you should be aware of while developing SFML applications: if you build SFML yourself, you can get dylib in both release and debug configurations. However, frameworks are only available in the release configuration. In either case, it shouldn't be an issue since you should be using the release version of SFML when you release your application anyway. That's why the OS X binaries on the download page are only available in the release configuration.


SFML is provided with two templates for Xcode 4+ which allow you to create new application projects very quickly and easily: you can select which modules your application requires, whether you want to use SFML as dylib or as frameworks and whether to create an application bundle containing all its resources (making the installation process of your applications as easy as a simple drag-and-drop) or a classic binary. See below for more details. 350c69d7ab


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