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Christopher Gorbachev
Christopher Gorbachev

Wiseness __LINK__



If a test taker possesses test-wiseness and relevant partial knowledge, and if a test contains susceptible items, then the combination of these factors can result in improved or higher scores. In this article, test-wiseness is defined and described in terms of the elements that comprise test-wiseness. A model of test-wise test taking behavior is presented that shows the need for relevant partial knowledge in the application of test-wiseness. A review of the correlates, including race or ethnicity, of test-wiseness is then provided, followed by a review of the effects of training programs designed to minimize the differences in test-wiseness among examinees. The paper concludes with the recommendation, made in the interest of fairness to all examinees, that multifaceted, multimedia training programs directed toward the acquisition of test-wiseness be included as a regular part of the school program at the junior high school level.




wiseness


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Test-wiseness gilt bereits seit langem als wichtiger Einflussfaktor auf die Ergebnisse von Multiple-Choice Tests. So scheinen Personen mit Wissen über test-wiseness besser in Multiple-Choice Tests abzuschneiden als Personen ohne dieses Wissen. Darüber hinaus konnte gezeigt werden, dass test-wiseness trainiert bzw. erlernt werden kann. Obwohl test-wiseness für das Abschneiden in einem Multiple-Choice Test von entscheidender Bedeutung zu sein scheint, stammen die vorhandenen Erkenntnisse und Befunde fast ausschließlich aus dem amerikanischen Sprachraum. Im deutschsprachigen Raum dagegen liegen kaum Befunde zu test-wiseness vor. Vor diesem Hintergrund wurde anhand einer englischen Testversion ein deutschsprachiger Test entwickelt. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es, den Einfluss thematischen Wissens sowie den Einfluss einer Schulung zu test-wiseness auf das Testergebnis zu untersuchen. Hierzu beantworteten 252 Studierende 24 deutschsprachige Multiple-Choice Aufgaben zur Erfassung ihres Wissens über test-wiseness. Es wurde ein 2 (mit vs. ohne Expertise) x 2 (mit vs. ohne Schulung) Versuchsdesign realisiert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Personen mit thematischem Wissen bessere Ergebnisse erzielen als Personen ohne thematisches Wissen und Personen mit Schulung bessere Ergebnisse als Personen ohne Schulung. Insgesamt machen die Befunde deutlich, dass ein deutschsprachiger Test zur Erfassung von test-wiseness entstanden ist, der der Güte vorhandener internationaler Tests entspricht. Zusätzlich wird deutlich, dass auch im deutschsprachigen Sprachraum zukünftig ein stärkerer Fokus auf die Kontrolle von test-wiseness gerichtet werden sollte.


Practicing good study skills helps develop a set oftest-taking strategies. It is important to learn how to approacha variety of exams. Test-wiseness is receiving, retaining, andrecalling the information and much more.


Elicited imitation (EI) has gained popularity with recent interests in the quest for efficient and flexible measures of second language (L2) proficiency. Despite the surge of interests, questions remain as to what specific linguistic knowledge, skills, and strategies EI measures. To contribute to this line of inquiry, this study explored the nature of strategy use and its effect on EI performance to elucidate the constructs of EI. Twenty-four L2 learners and eight native speakers of Chinese completed an EI test of Chinese and a strategy use questionnaire after the test. Qualitative analyses of the questionnaire responses revealed that participants mainly employed five types of strategies, including approach strategies, cognitive strategies, metacognitive strategies, communication strategies, and test-wiseness strategies. While native speakers reported the least number of strategies, higher-proficiency L2 learners reported more strategies than lower-proficiency L2 learners. We further subjected strategy use, along with participant proficiency level, item length, and item complexity level, to linear mixed-effects regression analyses. The results showed that participant proficiency level, item length, and item complexity level explained the largest test score variance; in contrast, strategy use of different types only accounted for a smaller proportion. The total number of cognitive strategies had a significant, positive effect on EI performance whereas the total number of metacognitive strategies had a significant, negative effect. These findings offer some insights into the nature of speech comprehension and production on EI and provide validity evidence for the use of EI as a language proficiency measure.


N2 - Elicited imitation (EI) has gained popularity with recent interests in the quest for efficient and flexible measures of second language (L2) proficiency. Despite the surge of interests, questions remain as to what specific linguistic knowledge, skills, and strategies EI measures. To contribute to this line of inquiry, this study explored the nature of strategy use and its effect on EI performance to elucidate the constructs of EI. Twenty-four L2 learners and eight native speakers of Chinese completed an EI test of Chinese and a strategy use questionnaire after the test. Qualitative analyses of the questionnaire responses revealed that participants mainly employed five types of strategies, including approach strategies, cognitive strategies, metacognitive strategies, communication strategies, and test-wiseness strategies. While native speakers reported the least number of strategies, higher-proficiency L2 learners reported more strategies than lower-proficiency L2 learners. We further subjected strategy use, along with participant proficiency level, item length, and item complexity level, to linear mixed-effects regression analyses. The results showed that participant proficiency level, item length, and item complexity level explained the largest test score variance; in contrast, strategy use of different types only accounted for a smaller proportion. The total number of cognitive strategies had a significant, positive effect on EI performance whereas the total number of metacognitive strategies had a significant, negative effect. These findings offer some insights into the nature of speech comprehension and production on EI and provide validity evidence for the use of EI as a language proficiency measure.


AB - Elicited imitation (EI) has gained popularity with recent interests in the quest for efficient and flexible measures of second language (L2) proficiency. Despite the surge of interests, questions remain as to what specific linguistic knowledge, skills, and strategies EI measures. To contribute to this line of inquiry, this study explored the nature of strategy use and its effect on EI performance to elucidate the constructs of EI. Twenty-four L2 learners and eight native speakers of Chinese completed an EI test of Chinese and a strategy use questionnaire after the test. Qualitative analyses of the questionnaire responses revealed that participants mainly employed five types of strategies, including approach strategies, cognitive strategies, metacognitive strategies, communication strategies, and test-wiseness strategies. While native speakers reported the least number of strategies, higher-proficiency L2 learners reported more strategies than lower-proficiency L2 learners. We further subjected strategy use, along with participant proficiency level, item length, and item complexity level, to linear mixed-effects regression analyses. The results showed that participant proficiency level, item length, and item complexity level explained the largest test score variance; in contrast, strategy use of different types only accounted for a smaller proportion. The total number of cognitive strategies had a significant, positive effect on EI performance whereas the total number of metacognitive strategies had a significant, negative effect. These findings offer some insights into the nature of speech comprehension and production on EI and provide validity evidence for the use of EI as a language proficiency measure. 041b061a72


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