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Sebastian Ross
Sebastian Ross

Kostof City Shaped Pdf 45



One of the most pressing challenges localities around the world currently face is the rising cost of housing in city centers, and the ensuing exodus of lower-income residents into the suburbs. These books will help New Urbanists understand the intricacies of these trends and the ways we can use the tools of smart urban design to address them.




kostof city shaped pdf 45



Streets and other thoroughfares have the capacity to make or break a place. These books explain why smart street planning is essential and equip readers with the know-how to effectuate it in their own projects.


Fig 3 looks at late Medieval and early Modern Barcelona [58], a city that has prominent organic or self-organizing areas as well as orthogonal sections. While the old city region (Fig 3B, 3D and 3F), particularly near the cathedral, is prominent in centrality, other districts are also central in other measures, including areas with wider streets (Fig 3A, 3E and 3I). Some measures show similarity in centrality in different districts (Fig 3C, 3G and 3H). In contrast to Dura Europos, there is a more skewed concentration in centrality values when analyzing centrality differences (Fig 3A, 3E and 3I). While some degree-based measures show more evenness (Fig 3C and 3G) across the urban area than distance-based measures, similar to Dura Europos, the measures also show more regions with low centrality values with eigenvector centrality showing highly skewed centrality (Fig 3E) than the other measures. Overall, this demonstrates potential centrality variation in distributions between more orthogonal and less orthogonal urban settings.


Beginning in the 1660s, a number of factors combined that would cause a slow decline in the fortunes of the VOC, which ultimately resulted in bankruptcy at the close of the eighteenth century.21 These factors included a shift in European tastes, a decline in profitability, less access to the staples of the spice trade, namely pepper, and a decline in the Asian supply of precious metals to the VOC.22 Health problems in the city of Batavia contributed to growing personnel costs, as more and more of the soldiers and company employees arriving in the city succumbed to malaria and needed to be replaced.23 In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the Dutch government took over administration from the VOC, officially colonizing the region.


Beginning in the mid-eighteenth century, as the canals silted up and grew stinky and diseased, the wealthy Europeans moved north of the city environs, building villas rather than townhouses. The historic city core became a place for low-income residents who could not afford the healthier countryside. The result was a further separation within the social hierarchy of Batavia.


Social divisions between ethnic groups contributed to the sense of separation of both free and enslaved groups. The VOC promoted ethnic divisions among slaves to secure the city against slave uprisings. Despite their shared living area after 1664, the slaves remained divided by origin, religion, and status. Ethnic divisions were maintained among the slaves in large part because of European perceptions of the specific skills of each group and the relative risks presented by a particular group.93 By treaty, no Javanese were slaves, as they were assumed to have the greatest motivation and means to escape their owners. Certain groups were prohibited because of a perception that they were dangerous: male slaves from Bali were avoided because of their tendency to run amok. The VOC also issued ordinances about who might own a slave and which religion that slave might practice. Not surprisingly, those ordinances served to maintain a hierarchy among slave owners, with Dutch Christians at the top.94 Outside of the very inclusive Dutch group, similar social divisions could be found in the free population of the city, a group which operated under a kampung organization. This was a locally derived practice, in which each ethnic group controlled its own neighborhood, led by an officer chosen from among the population. While empowering a group to partially self-govern, in effect this kept people from interacting or transferring among groups, by maintaining linguistic and ethnic divisions between populations. 350c69d7ab


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